Advanced Machinery Lubrication

The courses on Machinery Lubrication (Essentials and Advanced) provide training in industrial lubricants, machinery lubrication, contamination control and oil sampling. They lay the groundwork for establishing a lubrication and oil analysis program, and are designed to help you prepare for the ICML Level I & II Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) certification.

A Sample of What You’ll Learn

  • The most effective lubrication methods for more reliable machinery
  • How to build a safe and effective lubricant storage and handling program
  • How to rate filters and select the right filtration for the job
  • Lubricant labeling and coding systems – what works and what doesn’t
  • Industry’s best procedures for greasing electric motor bearings
  • How to get the right lubricant, in the right place, at the right time, and in the right amount
Base Oil Fundamentals

  • How Lubricants are Formulated
  • Mineral Oil Properties
  • Most Lubricating Oils Come From Petroleum (about 95%)
  • API Base Oil Categories
  • Solvent–refined Group I Base Oil
  • Hydrotreated Group II Base Oil
  • Hydrocracked Group III Base Oil
  • Comparison of Mineral Base Oil Groups
  • Synthetic Lubricants are Man-made Fluids Like Liquid Plastics
  • Molecular Comparison
  • Synthetic Lubricant Properties
  • How Synthetic Oil Properties Compare
  • Polyalphaolefin (Synthetic)
  • Polyalkylene Glycol (Synthetic) – Polyglycol
  • Dibasic Acid Ester (Diester) – Synthetic
  • Polyol Ester (Synthetic)
  • Phosphate Ester (Synthetic)
  • Silicones (Synthetic)
  • Types of Lubrication Films
  • Hydrodynamic Lubrication – Sliding Thick-film Lubrication
  • Factors that Influence Hydrodynamic Lubrication (Stribeck Curve)
  • Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Under Rolling Conditions
  • Example Locations Where EHL Contacts Occur
  • Wear and Friction Control Additives Form Chemical and Solid Lubrication Films
  • Role of Fatty Acids, AW and EP Lubrication Films
  • Solid Additives Used for Wear and Friction Control
  • Four-Ball Wear Test ASTM D2266 (Grease) and D4172 (Oil)
  • Four-Ball EP Test ASTM D2596
  • Timken Extreme Pressure Test ASTM D2509/2782
  • Pin and V-Block Falex EP/Wear Test ASTM D2670, ASTM D3233 (Antiscuff), ASTM D2670
  • FZG Four-Square Gear Test
Understanding and Analyzing Machine Wear

  • What Causes Changes in Wear Debris Concentrations
  • Dirt Causes Increased Wear & Oil Consumption
  • Case Study: Wear Debris Generation in 17 Hydraulic Machines
  • Effects of Water on Journal Bearings and Hydraulic Pumps
  • Water-Related Damage to Rolling Element Bearings
  • Hydrogen-Induced Wear (HIW)
  • Factors Leading to Abnormal Engine Wear
  • The Secret to Fault Detection and Analysis
  • How to Enhance the Detection of Abnormal Wear Particle Trends
  • Clean Oil Helps You Detect Faults Earlier
  • Technologies Used to Analyze Wear Debris
  • The Progression of Mechanical Wear Particles
  • Particle Size Sensitivities of Wear Particle Technologies
  • Spectrometric Elemental Analysis
  • Anatomy of Atomic Emission Spectrometers (AES)
  • Comparison of Laboratory Emission Spectrometers
  • How Wear Particle Size Influences Spectrometric Analysis
  • Size Limitation of Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)
  • Rotrode Filter Method Improves Large Particle Measurement
  • Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) Spectroscopy Can Help Determine the Severity of a Wear
  • Lock-step Trends
  • Interpreting Elemental Trends Using Level Limits
  • Normalizing Elemental Data to “Rate of Wear”
  • Normalizing for Makeup Oil
  • Using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to Characterize Active Wear
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy
  • Elemental Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF)
  • X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy Applications and Benefits
  • Potential Sources of Metals in Oil
  • Potential Sources of Metals in Oil (cont’d)
  • Know Your Elements
  • Best Applications for Elemental Analysis of Wear Metals
  • Wear Particle Identification using Analytical Ferrography and Patch
Ferrography

  • Analytical Ferrography
  • Ferrographic Analysis – What it is Trying to Tell You?

    • Is There a Fault or Abnormal Wear?

      • Three Ferrous Density Testers
      • Direct Reading Ferrography
      • Typical Direct Reading Ferrography Ranges
      • Using the Hall Effect to Determine Ferrous Particle Concentrations
      • Using Ferrous Particle Counter
    • If Yes to 1. Prepare Particles for Microscopic Examination (Analytical Ferrography)

      • Preparation of a Ferrogram (ASTM D7690)
      • Procedure for Preparing a Filtergram (ASTM D7670)
      • Microscopic Examination of Ferrogram
      • Ferrogram vs. Filtergram
    • Where Is the Abnormal Wear Coming From?

      • Look at Particle Metallurgy to Identify Source of Wear
      • Characterizing Particle Composition by Visual Inspection
      • Heat Treated Ferrograms Helps Identify Metals
      • Chemical Microscopy
      • Impaction Testing
      • Four Shape Features of Common Wear Particles
      • Examine Appearance of Particle to Identify Cause
      • Standardized Particle Characterization (ASTM D7684-10)
      • Tips for Recognizing Common Problems
      • Abrasive Wear
      • Abrasive Wear Particles
      • Cu6ng Wear (SEM image)
      • Particle Impingement Erosion by Silica (SEM image)
      • Adhesive Wear
      • Adhesive Wear Particles
      • Severe Adhesive Wear (SEM image)
      • Surface Fatigue
      • Surface Fatigue Particles
      • Contact Fatigue (SEM image)
      • Effect of Hard “Aluminum Oxide” Particles Tumbling Through an Engine Sleeve Bearing
      • Chemical Wear (corrosion)
      • Corrosive Wear Particles
      • Iron Oxide
      • Fre6ng Corrosion
      • Theories on the Origin and Mechanisms of Spherical Wear Particles
      • Theories on the Mechanisms of Non-wear Related Spheres
      • Cummins Journal Bearing Damaged by “Oil Balls” (SEM Image)
      • Electrical Discharge Wear (SEM image)
      • Summary of Spherical Wear Particles
      • Non-ferrous Wear Particles
      • Other Particles
      • Friction Polymer Formation
      • Ferrogram Particle Identification Guide
    • What is Causing the Wear to Occur?
    • How Severe or Threatening is it?

      • Recognizing Wear Zones in Gearing
      • Major Types of Gear Tooth Wear
      • Contaminant-Induced Thrust Bearing Failures
      • Troubleshooting Journal Bearing Failures
      • Can The Abnormal Wear Be Arrested?
Integrating Oil Analysis with Vibration Analysis

  • Monash Gear Box Failure Study By The Center For Machine Condition Monitoring
  • Monash Gearbox Study Observations
  • Gearbox Example of Troubleshooting with Integrated Condition Monitoring
  • Failure Detection – The Synergy of Integration
  • Partnering Oil Analysis with Vibration Analysis
  • Localizing Problems with Oil Analysis
  • Combining Vibe with Wear Debris in Bearing Failure Analysis
  • Keys to Successful Integration of Oil Analysis and Vibration Analysis
Fluid Properties Analysis

  • How Heavy are Oil Molecules?
  • How Oil Aging Affects Mineral Oil Viscosity
  • Two Common Measures for Viscosity
  • Comparing Kinematic to Absolute Viscosity with Used Oil
  • SAE J-300 Engine Oil Viscosity Classification
  • What is Viscosity Index?
  • Viscosity Index Improvers
  • Absolute vs. Kinematic Viscosity
  • VI Improver Polymers – Viscosity and Shear Effects
  • Viscosity-shear Characteristics of Multigrade Engine Oils
  • Permanent Viscosity Loss Due to VII Sheardown
  • How Does Viscosity Index Impact an Oils Ability to Lubricate?
  • Pour Point – Cold Temperature Fluidity
  • Cold Temperature Motor Oil Viscosity
  • Additives: Pour Point Depressants
  • What Temperature Should Viscosity be Measured and Trended at?
  • Viscosity Trends of Diesel Crankcase Oils
  • Best Practices for On-site Viscosity Analysis
  • Specific Gravity and API Gravity
  • Flash Point and Volatility Tests
  • Volatility of Base Oils
  • The Oil Aging Process…No, It Doesn’t Last Forever
  • Oxidation Root Causes
  • Antioxidants/Oxidation Inhibitors
  • How Anti-oxidants Alter Oil Life
  • Common Oxidation Indicators
  • Aging Oxidation Life-Cycle of an Oil
  • Oil Analysis Oxidation Pointers
  • Measuring Oxidation Stability
  • Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RPVOT)*
  • Actual “In Machine” Stressing Conditions Affect Service Life
  • Linear Sweep Voltametry (Measures additive depletion)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry
  • Correlating Changes in RUL to Oxidation Life Cycle
  • Comparison of Antioxidant Depletion Measurements
  • Thermal Stability and Coking Tests
  • Trending Acid and Base Numbers
  • Notes on Acid and Base Numbers
  • AN Trends With AW and R&O Oils
  • Notes on AN Monitoring
  • Variations in AN Trends by Oil Type
  • Measuring Acid Number and Strong Acid Number
  • AN vs. RPVOT* in a Turbine Oil Analysis Study
  • AN Trends for Phosphate Ester Steam Turbine EHC Fluid
  • Over-base Detergents Additives
  • Over-base Corrosion Control Additives
  • Correlation of Base Number to Bearing Metal in Engines
  • Select Correct ASTM Procedure for BN Monitoring
  • BN Trends of Diesel Crankcase Oils
  • Machine Diagnostics Using Neutralization Numbers
  • Two Types of Spectrometry
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

    • How FTIR Works
    • Using Spectral Subtraction
    • Your Oil Analysis Report Might Show One or More of these FTIR Units
    • Application Considerations
    • Detection of Base Oil Oxidation (ASTM D7414)
    • FTIR Requires an Accurate New Oil Reference
    • Using FTIR to Detect Common Base Oil Problems
    • Detection of Sulphation (Sulfur Containing Oxides)
    • Detection of Nitration
    • Hindered Phenol (Antioxidant) Depletion
    • ZDDP (anti-wear/Antioxidant) Depletion
    • Typical Absorption Wavenumbers (cm-1) for FTIR
  • Varnish Formation
  • Typical Sequence of Events Leading to Varnish
  • Why Varnish, Sludge and Deposits are a Problem
  • Causes and Characteristics of Lubricant Upset
  • Visual Evidence of Oxidation-induced Varnish Potential
  • Adiabatic Heating and Micro-dieseling From Aeration
  • Carbon Insolubles from Micro-dieseling Look for a New Home
  • Hot Wall Thermal Degradation and Coking
  • Effects of Suspended Wear Metals on Hot-Wall Engine Deposits
  • Varnish and Sludge from Dead Additives
  • Membrane Patch Colorimetry (ASTM D7843-12)
  • An Example of MPC Values
  • Oxide Insolubles Test – Confirms Abnormal Oxidation
  • Ultracentrifuge (UC) –ti of Carbon and Oxide Insolubles
  • Insoluble Sediment Rating Chart
  • How New Lubricant Quality Can be Compromised
  • Testing New Lubricants
Additive Depletion

  • “Decomposition” Additive Depletion
  • “Separation” Additive Depletion (Mass Transfer)
  • “Adsorptive” Additive Depletion (Mass Transfer)
  • Mechanism of Depletion for Common Additive Types
  • How to Detect Additive Depletion
  • How to Find Additive Depletion Data on an Oil Analysis Report
  • Elemental Analysis of Used Oils Helps Detect Mixed Lubricants (Class Challenge)
  • Remaining Useful Additive Level by Stoke’s Procedure
  • Filterability (ISO 13357)
  • Monitoring Organic Additive Depletion
  • Reconstructing Depleted Oil Additives
Contamination Analysis

  • Step No. 3 – Monitoring and Controlling Particle Concentrations
  • Se6ng ORS Cleanliness Targets Relates Directly to the Definition of Risk
  • Five Ways to Count and Size Particles
  • Automatic Optical Particle Counters (OPC)
  • Spherical Bananas – How Optical Particle Counters Work
  • How Contaminants Appear to Optical Particle Counters
  • Procedure for Reducing Water Interferences with Optical Particle Counters
  • The Patch Test – Field Test for Solid Contaminants
  • Direct Image Particle Counting (DIPC)
  • DIPC – Operational Principle
  • Aspect Ratio Characterizes Wear Type
  • DIPC – Wear Particle Image Map
  • DIPC Case Study – Gearbox Test Stand
  • DIPC vs. Ferrography
  • Particle Micro Patch Imaging (PMPI) for Particle Counting, Sizing and Characterization
  • Particle Images are Digitized, Sized, & Categorized
  • Inline Particle Counter – Movement of Hydraulic Crane Boom affects Particle Counts
  • Monitoring Dust and Dirt Contamination by Elemental Analysis
  • How to Analyze Filter Debris
  • Dispersants – Maximizing Soot Particle “Hang Time”
  • Important Distinctions Between Soot Load and Soot Dispersancy
  • How Dispersancy and Shear Rate Influence Oil Viscosity
  • Tests for High Soot Load
  • Blotter Spot Test – Dispersancy Performance
  • Power of the Blo5er
  • Blotter Spot Test – Lantos Method
  • Lantos Blotter Spot Procedure
  • Photometric Analysis Method
  • Using Photometric Analysis
  • Tests for Fuel Contamination (Fuel Dilution)
  • Flash Point Test
  • Diesel Fuel Dilution Effects on Lube Oil Viscosity
Corrosion Control

  • Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Anticorrosion Lubricant Tests
Air Release and Foam Control

  • Air Contamination: States of Co-Existence
  • Suction Is a Source of Entrained Air
  • Causes of Poor Air-Release (Detrainment) and Foaming Properties
  • Defoamants – How They Work
  • Air Release, Foam Tendency, Foam Stability
  • Filter Stripping of Defoamant Additive
  • When is Foam a Problem?
Water Affinity, Demulsibility and Hydrolysis

  • Water Contaminated Oil – 3 or 4 States of Co-Existence?
  • Water Ingression Sources
  • Oil/Water Demulsibility
  • Effect of Polar Additives on Oil-Water Emulsions
  • Water Contamination

    • Base Oil Effects
    • Additive Effects
    • Machine Effects
  • Water-Related Damage to Rolling Element Bearings
  • Water Contamination – Generator of Other Contaminants
  • Measuring Water in Oil By Karl Fischer (KF)
  • Case Study: Laboratory Reproducibility with Karl Fischer
  • Measuring Moisture using Calcium Hydride
  • Measuring Dissolved Water in Oil using Percent Saturation Sensors
  • How to Detect Glycol in Crankcase Oil
  • Notes on Glycol
  • Leakage from Perforation of Cylinder Liners
  • Blo5er Spot Testing Reveals Glycol Contamination
Grease Analysis

  • Lithium Complex (Soap)
  • Aluminum Complex (Soap)
  • Sodium Greases (Soap)
  • Calcium Complex Grease (Soap)
  • Barium Complex Grease (Soap)
  • Polyurea Grease (Non-Soap)
  • Organo-Clay Greases (Non-Soap) (AKA Bentone)
  • Silica Greases (Non-Soap)
  • Grease Consistency
  • NLGI Grease Consistency Numbers
  • Mechanical and Shear Stability of Grease
  • Pumpability and Slumpability
  • Dropping Point of Grease
  • Grease Bleed and Separation
  • Grease Water Washout Tests
  • Select Performance Properties of Grease
  • How Grease Properties Change due to Incompatible Mixtures
  • Sampling Valve Gearbox
  • Grease Thief Sampling – ASTM D7718
  • Sampling Techniques
  • In-Service Grease Analysis
  • SKF Portable Grease Tester
  • In-Service Grease Analysis
Onsite Oil Analysis Options

  • Before You Analyze Your Oil… Analyze Your Options
  • On-line, In-Line, Off-Line, On-board
  • Integrate Onsite with Offsite Analysis
  • Onsite Viscometry
  • Onsite FTIR
  • Onsite Optical Particle Counters
  • Preparing a Filter Patch for Particle Contamination Assessment
  • Preparing a Filter Patch for Particle Contamination Detection
  • Proper Particle Resuspension is Required Prior to Particle Counting
  • Lab Microscope
  • Three Ferrous Density Testers
  • Crackle Test – A Sight and Sound Procedure
  • Calcium Hydride Moisture Testers
  • Moisture Monitoring by Relative Humidity
  • Field Tests for AN and BN

    • $5K to Spend
    • $15K to Spend
    • $30K to Spend
    • $60K to Spend
  • More Than $50K to Spend – Consider Bench-top Minilabs
  • Tips on Designing an Onsite Lab Space
  • Ideal On-Site Lab Layout
  • Tips to Insuring Onsite Test Accuracy
  • Dedicated Oil Analysis Sensors
  • On-line Wear Debris Sensors – Technology Range of Performance
  • On-line Particle Counting
Designing an Oil Analysis Program

  • Two Factors Decide the Value Proposition of whether a Machine is a Good Candidate
  • What Oil Analysis Can Tell You
  • Detection Correction Screening
  • Condition-Monitoring Domains in the PF Interval Curve
  • Two Approaches to Oil Drain Scheduling
  • Optimizing Interval-based Oil Changes
  • Is a Condition-based Oil Change The Best Choice?
  • Designing an Oil Analysis Program
  • Oil Analysis Integrity Chain Starts with Sampling
  • Pretending to Save Money by not Investing in Properly Located Live Zone Sampling Ports
  • How Sampling Influences Oil Analysis Accuracy
  • Live Zone Sampling
  • Factors Influencing Sampling Frequencies
  • Routine and Exception Testing
  • Overview of 11 Common Oil Analysis Tests
  • Deciding Between Onsite vs Offsite Analysis
  • Tips on Working with an Offsite Lab
  • Designing an Oil Analysis Program
  • Oil Analysis Success Depends On Proper Se6ng of Limits
  • Goal-Based Limits (Targets)
  • Target Cleanliness Goal-Based Limit Se6ng
  • Aging Limits
  • Rate-of-Change Limits
  • Se6ng Statistical Limits
  • Statistical Predictive Maintenance Limits
  • Mobile Equipment Iron Trends Using Statistical Limits
  • Interpreting Elemental Trends Using Level Limits
  • Designing an Oil Analysis Program
  • Achieving Excellence in Oil Analysis
Cost Benefits Analysis

  • Why Economic Benefits Analysis?
  • The Economics of Heavy Industry
  • Hunt for Profit in Your Hidden Plant
  • Quantify the Benefits
  • Estimating the Value of a Predictive Maintenance “Save”
  • Predictive Maintenance Targets Failure Severity
  • Proactive Maintenance Targets the Failure Rate
  • Estimated Annual Savings Per Machine
  • Estimating the Project’s Upfront and Ongoing Costs
  • Project Evaluation Decision Tools
  • Investment Analysis – 20 Pumps
  • Time Value of Money
  • Assembling the Proposal
  • Always Include the So% Stuff
  • Daily Lubrication KPI’s – Average cleanliness
  • Track Your Progress: Daily – Lubrication KPI’s
  • Measuring Lubrication Success – OLE!
  • Final Words
What’s next?

  • Benchmark Lubrication Performance and Identify Improvement Opportunities
  • Lubrication Program Development
Case Studies Workshop

  • Overview of Report 1-7
  • Case No. 1 – Forced Dra% Fan – Outboard Bearing

    • FD Fan Case Study
    • Select a Sampling Location
    • Select a Test Slate and Sample Frequency
    • Sample Frequency Generator
    • Select Targets and Limits
    • Machine Life Extension Table
    • How Low Should Moisture Limits (Targets) Be Set?
    • Moisture Life Extension – FD Fan
    • Interpret Used Oil Data
    • Cost Summary to Upgrade Contamination Control and Oil Analysis
    • Failure Cost Reduced with Oil Analysis
    • Proactive and Predictive Oil Analysis Team-Up
    • Example Summary Investment Analysis
  • Case No. 2

    • Chip Truck Dumper Hydraulics
    • Select a Sampling Location
    • Interpret Used Oil Data
  • Case No. 3

    • Right-Angled Gear Drive
    • Select a Sampling Location
    • Interpret Used Oil Data
  • Case No. 4

    • Roots Blower – Bearing Oil
    • Select a Sampling Location
    • Interpret Used Oil Data

What You Get When You Attend

  • Case Studies
  • How To’s
  • Worksheets
  • Checklists
  • Look-up Charts

You’ll consider your course manual an indispensable on-the-job reference for years to come.

Check the Training Calendar.

“The list of things learnt which can be implemented are quite long. From contamination control to lube room layout to oil handling.”
P. Duraiswamy, Excell Enterprises, Fuches Distributor