Essentials of Machinery Lubrication

The courses on Machinery Lubrication (Essentials and Advanced) provide training in industrial lubricants, machinery lubrication, contamination control and oil sampling. They lay the groundwork for establishing a lubrication and oil analysis program, and are designed to help you prepare for the ICML Level I & II Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) certification.

A Sample of What You’ll Learn

  • The most effective lubrication methods for more reliable machinery
  • How to build a safe and effective lubricant storage and handling program
  • How to rate filters and select the right filtration for the job
  • Lubricant labeling and coding systems – what works and what doesn’t
  • Industry’s best procedures for greasing electric motor bearings
  • How to get the right lubricant, in the right place, at the right time, and in the right amount
The Role of Lubrication in Machine Reliability

  • The Journey to World-class Maintenance
  • Tribology Influences Machine Reliability and National Economy
  • The Economics of Maintenance and Lubrication
  • The Pareto Principle – Maintenance’s 80:20 Rule
  • Are You Pulling Your Weeds Out by the Roots?
  • Applying Pareto to the Reliability of Rolling Element Bearings
  • Modern Maintenance Technologies
  • The Human Body Parallel to Machine Maintenance
  • Root Cause-driven Maintenance = Proactive Maintenance
  • Time and Effort to Create a New “Business as Usual”
  • The Optimum Reference State (ORS)

    • Defined
    • Measured
    • Achieved
  • The Optimum Reference State avoids Waste and Excess
  • Roadmap to Lubrication Excellence
  • Case Study – 1994-1997 Condition Monitoring Savings – Baltimore Gas and Electric
  • Case Study – Nippon Steel Corporation
  • Machine Maintenance Philosophies
Lubrication Fundamentals

  • Industry Rides on an Oil Film of About 10 Microns
  • Machines have Widely Varying Needs from the Standpoint of Lubricant Selection
  • Types of Lubrication Films
  • Lubrication Regimes
  • Adhesive Wear
  • Speed and Load Effects on Lubricant and Viscosity Selection
  • Hydrodynamic Lubrication – Sliding Thick-film Lubrication
  • Factors that Influence Hydrodynamic Lubrication (Stribeck Curve)
  • Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Under Rolling Conditions
  • Example Locations Where EHL Contacts Occur
Lubricant Fundamentals – Base Oils

  • How Lubricants are Formulated
  • Common Generic Lubricant Types
  • Base Oils
  • Base Stock Physical Properties
  • Most Lubricating Oils Come From Petroleum (about 95%)
  • Mineral Oil Properties
  • API Base Oil Categories
  • Synthetic Lubricants are Man-made Fluids Like Liquid Plastics
  • Molecular Comparison
  • Base Oil Types vs. Service Temperature Range
  • Properties of Common Synthetic Base Oils
  • Synthetic Lubricant Properties
  • When to Select a Synthetic
  • How Synthetic Oil Properties Compare
Lubricant Fundamentals – Additives

  • Additives – What They Are
  • Characteristics of Polar Additives
  • Wear and Friction Control Additives Form Chemical and Solid Lubrication Films
  • Antioxidants/Oxidation Inhibitors
  • Dispersants – Maximizing Soot Particle “Hang Time”
  • Important Distinctions Between Soot Load and Soot Dispersancy
  • Viscosity Index Improvers
  • Over-base Detergents Additives
  • Defoamants – How They Work
  • Corrosion Inhibitors
  • Summary Common Additives and Their Functions
Lubricant Fundamentals – Grease

  • Lubricating Grease
  • Anatomy of a Lubricating Grease
  • Grease Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Grease Manufacturing Process (Soap-based Thickeners)
  • Grease Thickener Performance Table
  • Grease Thickener Compatibility
  • Grease Consistency
  • NLGI Grease Consistency Numbers
  • Selecting Grease According to Consistency and Base Oil Viscosity
  • What Causes Grease Dry-out?
  • Grease Properties – Requirements by Application
Lubricant Fundamentals – Viscosity and Viscosity Index

  • Viscosity
  • Two Common Measures for Viscosity
  • Measurement of Kinematic Viscosity
  • Measurement of Absolute Viscosity
  • ISO Viscosity Grades (ISO 3448)
  • SAE J-300 Engine Oil Viscosity Classification
  • SAE Grades
  • SAE J-306 Gear Oil Viscosity Classifications
  • Comparative Viscosity Classifications
  • Viscosity/Temperature Chart
  • Viscosity Selection Balance
  • Optimum Selection of Viscosity and Film Strength Additives can Lower Friction, Heat
  • What is Viscosity Index?
  • Hydraulic Vane Pump
  • Viscosity Selection Hydraulics
Food-grade and Environmentally Friendly Lubricants

  • How are Food-grade Lubricants Regulated?
  • NSF Food-grade Lubricant Classifications
  • Environmentally Friendly Lubricants
Lubricant Failure – Base Oils and Additives

  • How Lubricant Properties Change (Irreparably)
  • Dual Course of Oxidation
  • Common Oxidation Indicators
  • Thermal Stability of Lubricants
  • High Oil Temperature Accelerates Oil Degradation
  • Varnish Formation
  • Typical Sequence of Events Leading to Varnish
  • Comparing Thermal and Oxidative Oil Failure
  • “Decomposition” Additive Depletion
  • “Separation” Additive Depletion (Mass Transfer)
  • “Adsorptive” Additive Depletion (Mass Transfer)
  • Reconstructing Depleted Oil Additives
  • Are You Home Brewing Your Lubricants?
Lubricating Grease Application Methods

  • Grease Application – Manual Grease Gun
  • Grease Gun Operation
  • Grease Fittngs
  • Managing Pressure When Regreasing
  • Relubrication Used to Purge Contamination
  • Be Alert to Differences in Bearing Configurations – Especially Bearing Shields and Seals
  • Comparison of Bearing Configurations
  • Example Bearing Initial Fill Levels
  • Relubrication Volume Methods for Electric Motors Volume Maximum per Regreasing
  • Rolling Element Bearing Regreasing Intervals
  • Motor Bearing Relubrication Frequency (Grease)
  • Lubricating Electric Motors

    • Open Bearings
    • Single Shield, Supply-Side
    • Double Shielded
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
  • Electric Motor Regrease Procedures
  • Notes Regarding Supply and Purge Pipes
  • When Applying Grease with a Grease Gun – Use Caution and Pace Yourself
  • Too Much Grease in Electric Motors
  • Hot Running Electric Motors
  • Instructions for Motor Rebuild Shop
  • Summary Notes on Greasing a Motor Bearing
  • Electric Motor Grease Selection
  • Feedback Tools for “Right-Quantity” Greasing
  • Sonic/Ultrasonic Greasing – A Whole New Ball game
  • Options for Sonic/Ultrasonic Measurements
  • Strategy for Ultrasonic/Sonic-based

    • Regreasing Interval
    • Regreasing Volume
    • Regreasing Bad Actor
Greased System Troubleshooting Guide – Roller Bearings

  • Manual vs. Automatic Grease Supply
  • Single-point Lubricators (SPLs)
  • Spring-loaded Grease Cups
  • Gas-activated Single-point Lubricators
  • Positive Displacement Pump-type Units
  • Factors that Influence Single-point Lubricator Grease Flow
  • Centralized Multi-point Lubrication Systems
  • Single-line Parallel System
  • Single-line (Series) Progressive
  • Dual-line Parallel
  • Dual-line Parallel System in a Paper Mill
Lubricating Oil Application Methods

  • Lubricating Oil Delivery Options
  • Manual Lubrication
  • Drop and Wick Feed Cups
  • Constant-level Oilers
  • Avoiding Problems with Constant-level Oilers
  • Oil Li$ers
  • Limitations of Some Oil Li$ing Devices
  • Splash-lubricated Gear Drives
  • Dip Level for Non-Circulating Gear Drives
  • Pressure Spray Lubrication
  • Oil Mist Lubrication
  • Mist Lubrication Considerations
  • Oil Mist Options
  • Continuous Forced-oil Circulation
Journal Bearing Lubricants

  • Bearing Types – Journal (Plain) and Thrust Bearings
  • Journal Bearing

    • Viscosity Selection Based on Load and Speed
    • Viscosity Selection Based on Load and Surface Speed
  • Plain Bearings – Lubrication Problems
Rolling-element Bearing Lubricants

  • What’s Up With Speed Factors?
  • Using Speed Factor to Determine Oil vs. Grease
  • Ball Bearing Minimum Viscosity Calculation
  • Converting Required Operating Temperature Viscosity to ISO Viscosity Grades
Gear Lubricants

  • Gear Oil Requirements
  • Gear Design Basics
  • Typical Lubricant Formulations for Gear Drives
  • Gear Lubrication – Synthetic Lubricants
  • Method A – Industrial Gear Lubricant Viscosity Selection
  • Method B – Industrial Gear Lubricant Viscosity Selection
  • Method C – Selecting Lubricant Viscosity for Gear Oils
  • Guidelines for Storage of Spare Gearboxes and Similar Equipment
  • Guidelines for Storage of Spare Gearboxes
  • Lubrication Best Practices

    • for Enclosed Gears
    • for Open Gears
Selection and Use of Automotve and Mobile Equipment Drive-line Lubricants

  • Pathway Oil Flows Through a Gasoline Engine
  • Example: What is the Lubrication ORS Specification for a Diesel Engine
  • Factors Leading to Abnormal Engine Wear
  • How to Read an Oil Can: What to Look For
  • API Service Classifications
  • Dry Engine Starts
  • Benefits of Diesel Engine Prelube System
  • Cold Engine Starts (Viscosity Too High)
  • Glycol/Antifreeze Contamination in Engine Oil
  • Mechanism of “Oil Ball” Formation from Glycol (antifreeze) Contamination of Crankcase Oil
  • Fuel Contamination in Engine Oil (Fuel Dilution)
  • Best Practices for Diesel Engine Lubrication
  • API Automotive Gear Oil Service Designations
  • Functions of an Automatic Transmission Fluid
  • NLGI Automotive Grease Classifications*
  • Case Study: General Motors Testing on the Influence of Filter Performance on Engine Life
Compressor Lubricants

  • Compressor Lubrication
  • Compressor Lubrication Challenges
  • Synthetic Lubricants for Compressors
Steam and Gas Turbine Lubricants

  • Influence of Lubrication on Turbine/Generator Reliability
  • Turbine Oils
  • Comparing Turbine Oil Exposure and Operating Conditions
  • Technical Sheets – Turbine Oils
  • Oxidation Stability Test Reveals Incompatibility of Mixed Turbine Oils
  • Best Practices for Steam Turbine Lubrication
Hydraulic Fluids

  • Hydraulic Systems
  • Hydraulic Pumps
  • Viscosity Selection for Hydraulic Fluids Based on Pump Type, Operating Pressure
  • Hydraulic Fluids
  • Conditions Under Which a Synthetic Fluid May Be Required
  • Properties and Characteristics of Fire-Resistant Fluids
  • Best Practices for Hydraulic System Maintenance
The Effects of Contamination

  • Contamination Control – Building Reliability
  • Damage Caused by Oil Contamination
  • Case Study: Nippon Steel
  • Case Study: Kawasaki Steel
  • Port of Tacoma Slashes Engine Rebuild Costs by 66% on ti1 Straddle Carriers
  • BHP Decreases Failure Rate and Turns Up the Speed with Effective Lubrication
  • Three-body Abrasive Wear
  • Surface Fatigue
  • Particle Contamination: Both Cause and Effect of Wear
  • National Research Council of Canada – What Causes Wear?
  • Bearing Manufacturers Speak Out on Contamination
  • Understanding Particle Size and Particle Count
  • Silt Degrades Hydraulic Valve Performance
  • How Tough are Your Particles?
  • Proactive Maintenance in Three Easy Steps
  • ISO Solid Contaminant Code
  • How Much is One Part Per Million (1 ppm)?
  • Oil Pump or Dirt Pump?
  • Step No. 1 – Set Target Cleanliness Levels
  • Example Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness Targets
  • Reliability Penalty Factor (RPF)
  • RPF
  • Next, Consider the Machine’s Sensitivity to Particle Contamination
  • CSF
  • Target Cleanliness Grid (TCG)
  • Machine Life Extension Table
Water Contamination

  • Water Contamination – The Scourge of Lubricating Oils
  • Water Contaminated Oil – 3 or 4 States of Co-Existence?
  • Water Contamination

    • Base Oil Effects
    • Additive Effects
    • Machine Effects
    • Generator of Other Contaminants
  • How Low Should Moisture Limits (Targets) be Set?
  • Water-Related Damage to Rolling Element Bearings
  • Life Extension Table for Se4ng ORS Dryness Targets
  • Oil/Water Demulsibility
  • Moisture Detection by Vision
Air Contamination

  • Air Contamination: States of Co-Existence
  • Causes of Poor Air-Release (Detrainment) and Foaming Properties
  • Air Entrainment Problems Relate to Tank or Sump Design
  • Suction Is a Source of Entrained Air
  • How Aeration Affects Oil Flow, Cavitation Erosion, and Oil Thermal Damage
  • Cavitation Wear
  • Foam in Reservoir
  • What Foam Looks Like When You Mix Two Incompatible Oils
  • Sight Glass Options
Controlling Contaminants

  • Take Specific Actions to Achieve and Maintain Targets
  • Particle Population Growth Life Cycle
  • Contamination Induced by Transfer Container
  • Where Does Particle Contamination Come From?
  • Tank and Sump Ventilation
  • Spin-on or Cartridge Filters Used as Breathers
  • Desiccant Filter Breathers for Control of Dirt and Moisture Ingress
  • Dry Instrument Air Purge
  • Hatch Covers Need to be Sealed Tight
  • Sha$ Seals… Oil Retention or Dirt Exclusion?
  • Controlling Hydraulic Cylinder Ingression
  • Contamination Control Balance (Calorie Control Balance)
  • Is This a Stable or Unstable System?
  • Multipass Beta Ratio Test for Filters
  • The True Performance of Six 10-Micron Filters
  • Ways that Filter Performance May Be Impaired
  • Filter Location Options
  • Filter Media Determines Filter Integrity
  • Full-flow Pressure-line Filters
  • Return-line Filters
  • Do-It-For-Me Off-line Filters (OLFs)
  • Reservoir Off-line Filter (ROF) – Oil Level and Contamination Control for Small Sumps
  • Portable Filtration
  • Determining Clean-up Rate for Portable Filters
  • Filter Cart Applications
  • Normalized Engine Life Curve on Improved Filtration – GM Study
  • Engine Oil Filtration
  • Water Ingression Sources
  • High Headspace Humidity Plus Frequent Temperature Changes
  • Spin Your Oil Dry and Clean
  • Super Absorbent Filters
  • Oil Dehydration by Vacuum
  • Vacuum Column and Separation Configurations
  • Dehydration by Sparging and Dialysis
  • Oil Dehydration by Coalescence
  • Controlling Varnish-Potential
  • Electrostatic and Charged-particle Separators
  • Electrostatic Filtration
  • Balanced Charge Agglomeration
Oil Drains, Flushing and Reservoir Management

  • Two Approaches to Oil Drain Scheduling
  • Is a Condition-based Oil Change The Best Choice?
  • The Bleed-and-Feed Strategy for Extending Oil Drains
  • Diesel Engine Oil Drain Intervals
  • Oil Draining – Best Practices
  • Refilling – Best Practices
  • When to Flush
  • Flushing Tactics
  • Selecting the Best Tactics for Your Flushing Strategy
Lube Room, Handling, Storage and Management of Lubricants

  • Case Study: How Clean are New Oils?
  • Cleanliness and Dryness are Vital A3ributes of Lubricant Quality
  • Lubricant Supply Options
  • Bulk Storage and Handling
  • Bulk Storage Spill Protection
  • How to Respond to an Oil Spill
  • Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) – Tote Bins
  • Hard-piping from Bulk Supply to Machines
  • Steel Drums
  • Plastic Drums
  • Outdoor Drums Exposed to Rain
  • Protecting Drums from Contaminant Ingression
  • Don’t Put New Oil into a Dirty Drum
  • Drum Handling Safety
  • Tote and Drum Spill Containment
  • Lubricant Store Room
  • Features of a Proper Lubricant Storage Room
  • Lube Room Transfer and Filter Cart Storage Area
  • Properly Equipped Lube-dispensing Rack
  • Rack-mount Lube Dispensing Station – Drums and Totes
  • Bulk Oil Dispensing Done Right
  • Check Out These Lube Rooms/Trucks
  • Drum Pump Dispensing
  • Use Storage Lockers for Oil Cans, Tools and Accessories
  • Locker Inspection
  • Lube Room Safety Considerations
  • Best Practice – Oil Cans and Top-up Containers
  • Oil Cans and Top-up Containers – Things to Avoid
  • Best Top-up Container Options
  • Tips to Best Use of S&R Containers
  • Comparison of One-shot and S&R Top-up Containers
  • Portable Transfer Equipment
  • Funnel Management – Best Practices
  • Storing Grease – NLGI Best Practices
  • Product Storage Life
  • Maintain Fresh, Clean, and Well-labeled Inventory
  • Class Challenge
  • Lubrication Tags
  • Lube Code Tags – Where They Go
  • Grease Fi4ng Tags and Caps
  • Noria Lubricant Identification System (LIS)

    • for Oil
    • for Grease
Design and Inspect for Lubrication Excellence

  • Considerations for Accessorizing Equipment for Lubrication Excellence
  • Important Accessories for

    • Inspection and Sampling
    • Contamination Control
    • Lubrication
    • Instrumentation
  • Wet Sump Gearbox

    • Large
    • Medium
    • Small
  • Right-angle Gear Drive – Bath and Slinger Combo
  • Class Challenge

    • Part A
    • Part B
Used Oil Analysis Basics

  • Oil Analysis
  • Interrogate Your Oil
  • What Oil Analysis Can Tell You
  • Common Oil Analysis Applications
  • The Rights of Oil Analysis
  • Types of Oil Analysis
  • Three Categories of Oil Analysis
  • Sampling
  • Sampling Location – Wet Sump Circulating Systems
  • Five Options for Sampling Splash/Bath Lubricated Machines
  • Sampling Point

    • Forced Circulating Lube Oil System with Off-line Filtration
    • Hydraulic System with Return Line Filter
  • Drop-Tube Vacuum Sampling of Reservoirs and Tanks
  • Sample Bottles
  • Clean Oil Sampling Procedure – Best Practice
  • Factors Influencing Sampling Frequencies
  • Summary: Oil Sampling “Best Practices”
  • How to Set Viscosity Limits
  • Trending Acid and Base Numbers
  • Notes on Acid and Base Numbers
  • AN Trends With AW and R&O Oils
  • Trending BN’s with a Crankcase Oil
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RPVOT)*
  • Case Studies: Trending an Oil’s RPVOT Life
  • Achieving Excellence in Oil Analysis
Field Inspections – Basic Machine Care and Daily Rounds

  • Simplify Oil Analysis… Use Easy Field Tests and Inspections
  • Visual Inspection of Oil in a Sample Bottle
  • Using Oil Color as a Field Test
  • Field Test for Oil and Water Separation
  • Visual Internal Machinery Inspections
  • Visual External Machinery Inspections
  • Routine Inspection of Sight Glasses is Oil Analysis
  • See Tank Bottoms Without Removing the Oil
  • Field Test for Ferrous Particles
  • Simple Field Method for Preparing Patch
  • Ferro Sites
  • Field Test: Blotter Spot
  • Field Test for Viscosity Measurement
  • Field Tests for AN and BN
  • Other Audible Inspections
  • Audible Bearing Symptoms
  • Using Your Sense of Touch
  • How to Analyze Filter Debris
  • Used Filter Inspections
  • Moisture Detection by Vision
  • Crackle Test – A Sight and Sound Procedure
  • Measuring Moisture using Calcium Hydride
  • Using Oil Odor as a Field Test
  • Case Study – Invista (Victoria, TX)
  • Invista Benefits
  • Final Words

What You Get When You Attend

  • Case Studies
  • How To’s
  • Worksheets
  • Checklists
  • Look-up Charts

When you leave these courses, you’ll consider your course manual an indispensable on-the-job reference for years to come.

Check the Training Calendar.

“Able to analyze the lubrication failures in better way. Can imagine the surroundings at manufacturing units and get to the root of lubrication related problems in a better way.”
Tilak Patel, Reliability Engineer, Reliance Industries